As important as textbooks are, it’s even more important to see history and not just read about it. With our 21st-century perspectives, these candid shots from the past reveal the parts of history we rarely get to know. So take a dive into the days and years long since gone by. You might be surprised at all that still rings true today — and all that doesn’t.

Back in early-1900s Europe, “rat catchers” would head into sewers to exterminate the disease-spreading rodents, and got paid for every rat they caught. These workers would be an important factor in keeping up public health safety.

Making money from lemonade stands is the idyllic image of childhood entrepreneurship. But there’s an even better method: In 1931, a Berlin boy sold lemonade with a portable dispenser.

In the late 1600s, lightning struck an oak tree in a small French village. The proceeding fire hollowed the tree out and the residents built the inside into the Chêne Chapelle, with hidden nooks dedicated for prayers. It’s still standing to this day.

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When the Boxer Rebellion occurred in China, the Eight-Nation Alliance formed in response to the situation. Leaders from Britain, United States, Australia, India, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, and Japan all posed for a photo.

Kew Collection/National Archives

Back in 1931, Albert Einstein went to Teatro Torito to see a performance with an Einstein puppet involved. The famed scientist was so amused that he decided an aftershow meet-and-greet was in store.

These children using a pulley system to cross over a river aren’t doing it for fun. Taken in 1959 in Modena, Italy, the photo shows kids on their way to school! Missing the school bus doesn’t seem so bad right now.

The body of a man was discovered in a Damendorf, Germany, bog back in 1900. Tests revealed he had been dead since 300 BCE! While the body was almost entirely decayed, his intricately-made shoes were still intact.

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Ghosts are said to walk around on Halloween night, and what better way is there to blend in with them than by wearing bone-chilling homemade masks? Even back in the day, people knew how to cosplay.

Before she became a sex symbol, Marilyn Monroe was born Norma Jeane. Growing up, she went through foster homes and orphanages, and as a consequence, she felt incredibly insecure and had a stutter.

Over 3,000 men helped build the Chase Manhattan Bank in New York. In August of 1964, a photo was taken near the end of its completion. Standing at 810 feet, the photographer made sure to capture everyone involved.

Trains had to be made somewhere. Steam locomotives were an important transport during the 19th and 20th centuries. In workshops, the locomotives were both created and repaired

In 2010, divers went into the Baltic Sea and investigated the wreckage of a trade schooner along the Finnish coast. They didn’t find gold and jewels, but they did collect up to 168 bottles of well-preserved French champagne.

Visit Aland

Shoemaking in the 19th century was a careful craft. The goal wasn’t quantity but quality, and shoemakers used their hands to personally build their creations. It was a skill that, by the end of the century, would be replaced with large factories.

In 1858, the Photographic Society of London put on an exhibition with over 1,000 photos and displays of then-modern camera equipment. Charles Thurston Thompson, part of the staff, took the photo of the earliest known event held in a museum.

Photographic Society of London

Domenico Riccardo Peretti-Griva was a photographer in the Italian pictorial movement. He created portraits that involved nature and a certain intimacy. To create a dream-like quality, Peretti-Griva altered the focus and contrast until he was satisfied.

Domenico Riccardo Peretti-Griva

This 5-year-old baby turtle is the child of this 150-year old mother! Giant tortoises can live up to 250-years old, so these two still have quite a bit of time to spend with one another.

One of the best preserved Roman ruins can be found in Libya, close to the Mediterranean sea. Talk about a view. In the city of Leptis Magna, a trading post was turned into a grand theater that is still standing about 2,000 years later!

David Gunn/Wiki Commons

Here we have a very young Robert De Niro sitting next to his father, Robert De Niro Sr. A career in the arts was in the De Niro family’s blood, as the actor’s father was an abstract expressionist painter.

Many efforts were made to have Sudan, the last male northern white rhino in the world, mate with two females of his species, but none were successful. At age 45, Sudan passed away in the quiet safety of his sanctuary.

Guardian News/Youtube

A candid shot was taken of a 92-year old grandfather dedicating some time to personalizing a card for his upcoming 71st wedding anniversary. Hallmark could never compete with his gift.

Not so long ago, flight attendants weren’t only known for their preparedness. Clearly, other, um, assets were required, such as always-styled hair and short skirts. Rumor has it that “stewardesses” were expected to retire when they turned 32!

Believe it or not, this giant hippopotamus is just a baby! Clearly, the guy behind the wheel (or…reins?) is a hippo-whisperer, because that’s the only way we can think of that he got the hippo to cooperate. This must have been a very leisurely ride!

Topical Press Agency/Getty Images

It’s always funny seeing photos of celebrities before they hit it big, but this one is particularly great. It shows the legendary Robin Williams before he earned his “legendary” status, when he was just a kid in Central Park working on his mime material. 

Soldiers of the Queen’s Guard are notorious for being statue-still, no matter how much someone tries to get them to flinch. The opposite happened during the Color Parade in 1970, when the heat (or nerves) caused this poor soldier to keel over.

© Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images

Operation Upshot-Knothole took place in the Nevada desert in 1953, and you can probably guess from the menacing mushroom cloud what the military was testing. This was the first time a nuclear artillery shell was ever fired!

© CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images

Talk about being in the right place at the right time. The farmer looked over his shoulder just in time to watch a test pilot parachute to safety out of his failing airplane. Our only question is, how was the photographer so ready for this?

Is this the first selfie ever taken? Many historians think so, with the selfie-taker himself, Robert Cornelius, calling it the “first light picture ever taken.” The photo wouldn’t exactly fit on Instagram, but it’s a great slice of history!

Even though we’re all used to walking around in masks, this photo still sets an eerie tone. Back in World War II-era London, intense gas masks like these were essential…even on quiet afternoon strolls with the baby.

Sadly, the complicated equations on this blackboard will never be finished: This is a photo of Albert Einstein’s desk right after his death. It’s chilling to think how just hours before this, Einstein was sitting here with his pipe. 

Bettmann/Getty

What makes this photo so chilling isn’t how the ultra-cool James Dean is in it — it’s how this picture was taken mere hours before the car crash that took his life. This may be his last moment ever on camera. At least he’s doing what he loved!

Bettmann/Getty

It’s easy to see why some people refer to this woman as the “Mona Lisa” of the 1800s. Taken by photographer Francisco Van Camp in 1875 Manilla, this captivating woman’s identity has been a mystery for almost 150 years.

Now this is what courage looks like. Dorothy Counts is a Civil Rights pioneer and the first Black person to attend Harding High in North Carolina. The harassment she endured was so bad that she transferred schools after just four days.

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The only thing more American than baseball is Babe Ruth hitting a home run. We can’t be sure if that’s happening here, but the fact that a 1930s-era camera managed to capture a quick shot of Babe in action is pretty amazing all on its own. 

B Bennett/Getty Images

This is Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, a young Freedom Rider and Civil Rights activist in the early ‘60s. At 19, she was arrested and put on death row for two months before being released. Now 78, she’s still a prominent figure in the Civil Rights movement!

Mississippi Department of Archives and History

Can you believe the guy on the couch is just 19 years old? This is Robert Wadlow, AKA the Alton Giant, the tallest person in recorded history. He’s 8 ft., 7 in. here — four inches shy of his final height, which was 8 ft. 11 in.

Underwood Archives/Getty Images

1950s Hollywood was filled with sex symbols, and Brigitte Bardot is one of the most unforgettable. Here she is mugging for the camera on a beach in Cannes, seemingly unbothered by the starstruck crowd forming around her. 

People from all walks of life went to Woodstock in 1969, but it wasn’t exactly the kind of place you’d expect to find a little kid. Red bandanna man clearly thought otherwise, though, as he brought his tot along for the psychedelic ride.

Olive Ann Oatman is the first known white woman with a tattoo, and her story is unforgettable. After being kidnapped by Native Americans, she was adopted by a Mohave chief, given this tattoo, and eventually traded back to her home village. 

Ham the Astrochimp was the first hominid to breach the Earth’s atmosphere and live to tell the tale (well, you know what we mean). He survived the entire 16-minute, 39-second long mission with just a bruised nose.

Bettmann/Getty

What happens when two icons shake hands? Only a lucky few were witnesses to the moment Queen Elizabeth met Marilyn Monroe, and both women seem to be pretty starstruck in this 1956 photo. 

These women and children were liberated from a Holocaust train bound for the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they likely would have died. Some of the most noticeable details in this picture are the shared looks of desperate, surprised joy across these women’s faces as they stumble up a hill.

In 1928, Allen Swift bought this brand-new, mint-colored Rolls-Royce. At age 102, he was still driving the same vehicle! Before he died in 2005, he donated the car to Lyman & Merrie Wood Museum of Springfield History. So, the two have longevity and hardiness in common.

In the early hours of December 15, 1969, in 12 countries, identical billboards and posters appeared. Each one proclaimed, “WAR IS OVER! Happy Christmas from John & Yoko.” Ironically, the Vietnam War lasted until 1973.

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When prohibition started in 1920, Americans weren’t happy. One way booze-smugglers would transport their alcohol through town was using trucks with false backs. This faux lumber truck is a great example.

Another prohibition trick was wearing cow shoes. These footwear extensions mimicked cow hooves and could mask the direction in which the moonshine operator traveled. Many moonshine operations were deep in the woods, so these were excellent cover.

A fiery lake of lava surrounds an erupting volcano as several camouflaged planes seemingly hang in the smoky air. This isn’t the cover of an apocalyptic novel. This scene is from the 1944 eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

When Lt. Col. Robert Stirm returned to Travis Air Force Base in Fairfield, California, after serving in Vietnam, his family was ecstatic to see him. The picture went on to win a Pulitzer prize.

The first ambulance in Brooklyn appeared on the roads in 1873. This was before the advent of cars, so this vehicle ran on literal horsepower — a lone carthorse would carry this ambulance through the borough to the person in need.

World War I was a brutal global conflict. It was so hard on the soldiers that, in 1914, they called a truce for Christmas and organized a soccer game. Axis powers played on one side and Allied countries were on the other.

Rosa Parks is famous for her non-violent bus seat protest. What isn’t as well-known is her mugshot that was taken when she was arrested. This started the Montgomery Bus Boycott in December 1955.

Muhammad Ali won the gold medal in the 1960 Rome Olympics for boxing. He competed in the lightweight class during the games because this event took place when he was just 18 years old.

On June 4, 1989, the Chinese government fired into crowds of protestors in what became known as the Tiananmen Square massacre. The image of the defiant man standing in front of the tank and refusing to let them around him was taken days after.

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The strongman holding the smaller man in his hand may not look familiar at first glance, but if you’ve watched the original Star Wars movies you may be familiar with him. This is David Prowse, who was the body for Darth Vader.

34. Millions of men who fought in Vietnam didn’t want to be there. This young soldier with the phrase “War is hell” written in black ink across the front of his military helmet. In 1968 alone, 16,899 Americans — enlisted and drafted — died.

35. This image captures the last interaction between a father and son. President John F. Kennedy visited his dad at their Massachusetts home, and, several days later, he was assassinated in Dallas.

36. Children weren’t protected by many labor laws in the early 1900s. In Cotton Mill Girl from 1908, this young girl seems lonely as she runs her cotton spinning machine. Lewis Hine caught this image during a tour of the factory.

The first day of school is always a nerve-wracking day for parents. Imagine how Ruby Bridges’ parents must have felt as their daughter was escorted into William Frantz Elementary School by a federal agent.

After the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Asian people who lived in the U.S. were subject to discrimination. This beachgoer is flying the pre-Communist Chinese flag to show she’s not Japanese — the people who were being put in camps.

During Vietnam-era protests, people who were against America’s involvement in Vietnam would calmly place flowers into the barrel of police officer’s guns. Seeing these images draws a stunning parallel to our current unrest.

Elizabeth Eckford was another student who had a terrifying time trying to get inside her school safely. She was a part of the Little Rock Nine in 1957. Furious white protestors surrounded the entrance and hurled hateful, racist phrases at the brave teenagers.

Chess was so popular in the Soviet Union that, after World War II, a Soviet School of Chess was built. The game was considered a sport; this picture shows a human chess match watched by a large crowd.

A beggar runs alongside a carriage transporting King George V and his friends. Whether or not the beggar knew exactly who he was addressing is unknown, but it didn’t seem like the men had any interest in giving him a lift.

His young boy is reading a book in front of a London bookshop that was demolished by an air raid in 1940. This photo speaks to the citizens’ desire to lead lives that were as normal as possible amid wartime chaos.

This picture was taken during the Irish Civil Wars of the 1920s. Families who could afford “machine-made bread” were usually well-off financially because it meant they could afford items at a store rather than making them cheaply at home.

Here, a janitor sweeps up paper at the New York Stock Exchange immediately after Black Tuesday, the day of the Wall Street crash in 1929; it would lead to the Great Depression soon after.

Joseph Stalin was a dictator known for bloodshed and repression, so after he died, people everywhere were relieved. This restaurant located in Washington, D.C., gave away free borscht, a traditional eastern European dish, in honor of his passing.

During the 1950s, the United States carried out atomic tests in the Nevada desert just 65 miles away from Las Vegas. Here, a group of people enjoying a warm summer day can actually see a mushroom cloud forming in the distance.

Check out this gnarly way of traveling around town! This guy is wearing roller skates that are actually powered by a tank of gasoline worn like a backpack. This was definitely a unique invention, but not one that ever caught on (thank goodness).

Not long after the Berlin Wall was erected, a 20-year-old man named Heinz Meixner completed a daring escape into West Berlin with his future wife and mother-in-law smuggled inside his vehicle.

The man in this photo is Cudjoe Kazoola Lewis, and he was the last known survivor of the Atlantic slave trade. He was smuggled into the country illegally from Togo, West Africa, in 1859; fortunately, he gained his freedom a few years later.

Here is a group of people imbibing alcohol shortly after Prohibition laws were repealed. It was the first time in 13 years that alcohol could be sold legally, and everyone was eager to indulge without fear of prosecution.

When the Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961, it separated communities, friends, and families. In this picture, parents hold up their children to “visit” with grandparents on the other side of the wall.

This is a photo of the massive Guinness Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, in 1910. Amazingly, Ireland is no longer the largest consumer of Guinness. In 2007, the sales in Nigeria overtook Ireland!

In March 1979, the hijab law went into effect, meaning Muslim women were required to wear their head scarves every time they left their homes. Thousands of women protested the law, but without success.