It’s easy to take your backyard for granted. The grass and trees you look at everyday become a simple background where your family enjoys summer picnics and winter bonfires. Rarely do people consider the history of your fenced-in haven.
Brian Campbell had no choice but to think about the historical relevance of his garden after he found a bizarre object in his yard. His digging led to the resurfacing of an ancient mystery when he spotted a similar object in the most unexpected place.
For most people, doing yard work is a monotonous chore that just has to be done. But for one East London resident, his weekend “to do” list lead him to a strange discovery. It all began with a shovel in Brian Campbell’s backyard.
Nathaniel Hudson / Scott AFB
It was 1987 when Campbell went to work. He had recently had a tree stump removed from his lawn, and the gaping hole it left was an eyesore. So, he grabbed his shovel and got to work filling the hole with dirt.
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It wasn’t long before the tip of his shovel struck an object. He stopped digging when he heard the sound of his metal shovel hitting something hard. Campbell reached into the hole and felt a small, misshapen thing.
The strange finding was unlike anything Campbell had ever seen. It was smaller than a tennis ball and made of a heavy material. Mud caked the outside of the object, making it difficult to know what exactly it was. However, even when he rinsed it off he couldn’t recognize it.
“My first impressions,” explained Campbell, “were it was beautifully and skillfully made … probably by a blacksmith as a measuring tool of sorts.” At that conclusion, he set the mysterious figurine on his windowsill among his other trinkets where it sat for around ten years.
@trzypotrzy / Instagram
It wasn’t until Campbell made a trip to a Roman fort in Saalburg, Germany that he realized the true importance of the object he had stumbled across. Much to his surprise, he saw the very same 12-sided object in a glass display case during his visit.
tobelm / Reddit
The finding had hardly seemed worthy of a display case, as he had relegated his to his window sill for the last ten years. The label under the case read “Roman dodecahedron.” Because of its position in a museum, Campbell assumed this would be his chance to learn about his find.
He turned out to be wrong. In fact, he realized that the people studying this object were just as confused about it as him. Dodecahedrons have confounded experts for centuries. Despite their fairly common presence, no one knows exactly what they are.
John Cabot University
Almost 300 years ago, the first Roman dodecahedron was found in a field in the English countryside with some roman currency. “A piece of mixed metal consisting of 12 equal sides,” read the description of the object when it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries in London in 1739.
Part of what made the trinket so hard to understand was the composition of the 12 faces. All the faces had tiny holes of all different sizes. Plus, each of the 12 faces had a knob or ball attached to the end of it. The fine and detailed craftsmanship only confused scholars more.
Since then, over three hundred dodecahedrons have been found. Some are as big as a baseball, other are similar in size to the one Campbell found in his garden. The hollow objects all mimic the same curious construction. There is one thing that drives historians mad about these little objects.
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Unlike most of the artifacts found from history, the 12-sized figures have no recorded mentions whatsoever. Historians rely on written records to gather most of their knowledge about the past. Without any information about these dodecahedrons, they are forced to fill in their own blanks.
Because of the high quality craftsmanship on the dodecahedrons, many researchers believe they were quite valuable. The debate is over where exactly they brought value. The theories over these things vary significantly.
During the 19th century, a popular theory revolved around dodecahedrons being used as a weapon of some kind. Possibly like a bullet for a slingshot, but there is a huge flaw with that opinion. Why would they craft such an intricate design for a run of the mill weapon?
Historian Tibor Grüll of the University of Pécs in Hungary also points out than no dodecahedrons are the same size, nor do they have any numerical markings on them. “The practical function of this object can be excluded because none of the items have any inscriptions or signs on [them],” Grüll explained.
University of Pécs
On the opposite end of the spectrum, some believe it may have been used not as a weapon, but as a toy. Dodecahedrons resemble the french cup-and-ball game and dice, but there is another idea about their use that is a little more fanciful.
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The object was found in the 4th-century grave of a woman in the Netherlands, along with the remains of a bone staff. That dodecahedron was mounted on the staff like a scepter, and “probably ascribed with magical powers, bestowing religious power and prestige on its owner,” as explained by the Gallo-Roman Museum.
Maleficent / Disney
If not mystical, there is another possibility for cultural significance. The twelve sides could have a link to the astrological zodiac, or fortune-telling which was quite common in ancient times. Other theories still persist.
From weapons to toys to artistic statements, the ancient mystery of the dodecahedron persists. While this particular part of Roman history remains a secret, there is a lot we do know about the ancient Romans. Including some disturbing hygiene practices and odd eating patterns that don’t fit in with such a refined society.
Diaries kept by a passionate Roman foodie name Apicius detailed some of the utterly bonkers recipes that were considered the best eats across the Empire. It reads more like magic potion ingredients than a cookbook.
There were meals that sounded particularly witchy, like spayed sow’s womb, paunch of a suckling pig, and stuffed dormouse casserole. But the Romans experimented with eating pretty much any animal you can think of: parrots, peacocks, dolphins, and giraffes.
Flickr / Sharmzpad
On recovered Roman shipwrecks, archaeologists found jars of a popular condiment called garum. This sun-fermented fish sauce was often sopped up with bread but was also loaded with parasitic tapeworm eggs. No thanks!
Hakai Magazine / Alastair Bland
Etiquette standards were nonexistent in Ancient Rome. Dinner party guests simply disposed of their cleaned animal bones by tossing them willy nilly onto the floor. Later, slaves were ordered to clean the mulch of food scraps that had collected.
Since sitting down for lunch was gambling with parasites and bacteria, it follows suit that Roman medicinal practices were not even close to as sterile as contemporary medicine. Animal and human excrement were used topically and orally for cures and holistic treatments.
Wikicommons / Giorgio Sommer / Naples National Archaeological Museum
Roman medicine shifted the medical standard from largely supernatural to focused on balancing the four humors of the body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Bloodletting was popular just for the heck of restoring equilibrium.
Newswise / University of Michigan / Robert A. Thom
Studying fossilized Roman fecal matter revealed a wide variety of infections and parasites commonly borne out of poor hygiene and sanitary conditions, dysentery and roundworm among them, which experts say has something to do with a common farming practice of the time.
Newsweek / Wikicommons
The filthiness of human waste just wasn’t a blip on ancient Roman radar. They viewed excrement as a natural resource, spreading it as fertilizer for crops, fulfilling a toxic and nightmarish cycle when they tucked in to eat their yield.
Flickr / Nedra
Urine proved useful as laundry detergent. It was the job of a fuller to leave out and collect jugs of urine on the street to wash clothes in it since the ammonia worked to remove stains.
Toilet paper shortages were a non-issue back in Ancient Rome. To clean their keisters, they reached for a sponge on a stick called a xylospongium. Bathrooms consisted of a bench with holes, reminiscent of an outhouse.
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There’s an obvious red flag to this scenario. A sponge on a stick probably worked well enough, sure. Until you factor in the fact that xylospongium were shared amongst many people, and who can say if they were cleaned.
Wikicommons / D. Herdemerten
Nobody gave ancient Romans the memo that public nudity was lewd. They treated stone walls of public spaces like personal Craigslist ads. People carved out sexually explicit images and propositions as jokes, and also because they was supposed to boost virility.
Telegraph / Allstar / Cinetext / Python
On an ethical note, many Roman practices were indisputably messed up. Marriage, for example, was forced on girls as young as 12 years old, and that was the age restriction imposed by law.
Art Net / Emilio Vasarri
Of course, it wasn’t much easier for Roman boys. The raucous lifestyles of emperors are fairly well known, and the grim tone of their parties revolved around using minors as their sexual tools.
Rome / HBO
Charges of incest reached all the way to the top, most famously with Emperor Caligula. He was accused of having affairs with several of his sisters, and later publicly claimed his mother Agrippina was born of an incestuous relationship.
Game of Thrones / HBO
Committing a crime in ancient Rome was risking the most gruesome punishment imaginable. Their torture was creative — they fed the guilty to wild animals and buried alive disgraced Vestal Virgins — but the worst was saved for people who committed the most heinous acts.
Sinister minds developed what they felt was an appropriate punishment for people who murdered their fathers, which involved putting the convicted in a bag with a reactive animal like a snake, rooster, or monkey, and tossing them into the Tiber River.
Gladiator / Scott Free Productions
Life for the average ancient Roman was regularly anticipating brutality. No one was safe from the wrath of the soldiers conquering cities; innocent civilians, women, and children — all were slaughtered by the thousands. Entire cities burned to ash.
While they definitely took a major leap forward with public health initiatives like aqueducts and bathhouses, none of these would pass the most lenient of health inspections. The olive oil they slathered on every bather, as well as their dead skin scrapers, were perpetually reused.
The Bird Bath
After thousands of years of modernization, development, and societal growth, we still had miles to go in terms of proper hygiene. Looking back at the health habits of the American colonists, it’s shocking how much cleanliness standards changed in only a few hundred years.
YouTube / The Crucible / Twentieth Century Fox
Though keeping oneself clean is common practice in our day, hygiene was a somewhat controversial topic in the 18th century. Some doctors actually advocated against bathing regularly, as they believed the body’s oils were essential to good health.
Fine Art America
Religion and cleanliness also went hand in hand, as filth and dirt were often equated with sin and the devil. Morality came into play as well, as those who were clean were looked at as less likely to commit wrongdoings.
While most rinsed their hands and faces each morning, full-body baths were uncommon among most men, women, and children. Infants, however, were bathed regularly, though this was more so in an effort to “harden” them than to clean them.
In some cases, women actually preferred not to bathe and used their uncleanliness as a means of self defense. Using their body odor, they hoped to repel the unwanted advances of overly persistent men.
Another deterrent to bathing was the size of most wash basins, as only the extraordinarily wealthy could afford bathtubs large enough to hold an adult. Freshwater bodies like lakes served as basins of a sort for lower-class men, yet soap was rarely brought along.
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This was because lye soap — made from a mixture of animal fat, lye, and ash — was difficult to make and incredibly harsh on skin. Instead, this soap was used to wash clothing and dishes.
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Yet not all clothes were washed equally, as the process of drawing water, heating it, cleaning the clothes, and wringing them out to dry was a strenuous one. Therefore, only the dirtiest clothes — aprons, underwear, diapers, and the like — were cleaned.
Unfortunately, this meant that most blankets and bedsheets went unwashed, leading to frequent bug infestations. Fleas, cockroaches, and mosquitos were prevalent, and some even resorted to sleeping beside campfires to keep the bugs at bay.
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Lice were also a frequent nuisance, especially when it came to the powdered wigs that most upper-class colonists wore. Despite most men and women shaving their heads to prevent the bugs from nesting, their wigs served as the perfect place for lice to settle in.
Washing the wigs did little to rid them of infestation, leading colonists to coat them in bergamot, bay leaves, and other repellents to keep the bugs away. Unfortunately, the rich pomades used to style the wigs only served as a magnet for hungry lice.
Roy and Dolores Kelley / Flickr
George Washington wrote often about his experiences with such “vermin” and mandated that soldiers wash their shirts weekly and their hands and face daily during wartime. Close-quarter camps served as breeding grounds for parasites and disease, especially the deadly smallpox.
To keep camps in order, “camp followers” traveled alongside the military and tended to their sanitary needs. These individuals — who were mostly women and slaves — ensured that the soldiers’ meals were properly prepared and washed their uniforms as needed.
Drifting Focus Photography
When a man needed a shave he visited a barber, who was typically a highly skilled man of color. Women, on the other hand, didn’t shave at all, as common conventions dictated that they show very little skin.
For those women that did seek to remove hair, plucking was a standard option (Eyebrows won’t tweeze themselves!). Eighteenth-century medical journals suggest that depilatory creams — some of which utilized limestone and arsenic — were also used.
Dental care was also somewhat of a mismanaged science, as most people had little concern for the health of their mouth. When toothaches did arise, remedies like chamomile, alcohol, and opium were used to dull the pain.
Cup & Leaf
In most cases an extraction was required, though taking a trip to the dentist wasn’t an option back then. Instead, sufferers visited their local surgeon, apothecary, barber, or even blacksmith to have a tooth pulled.
For those that were conscious of their oral health, metal tooth pickers were available for purchase. Unfortunately, these instruments were also used for a variety of other unsavory tasks, including picking the nails and scooping wax from the ears.
On another level of unsavory, outhouses — or, more specifically, covered holes in the ground — served as bathrooms for most colonists. Chamberpots were also used, their contents simply dumped out the window once full.
Not only were these practices unsanitary, but they also posed serious health risks. Feces and other contaminants would typically seep into the groundwater or runoff into streams and lakes, leading to high levels of contamination.
This, perhaps, is why disease was so widespread within the colonies. Cholera, typhoid fever, and influenza were extremely prevalent, and dysentery — commonly known as the “bloody flux” — ravaged the population.
Believe it or not, health practices back in Medieval times were actually much worse than these. During this time, heating water for a single bath took so long that families would actually share used bathwater. Let’s hope they only shared their baths with other people…
2. Baldness Cures: Balding men of the Renaissance were convinced that rubbing a combination of chicken poop and potassium on their heads would help their hair grow back. Did it work? Judging by what Shakespeare looked like in his later years, the answer is a resounding “no”.
Internet Archive Book Images / Flickr
3. Cough Remedies: Have a tickle in your throat? Doctors once believed that combining one pound of slimy snails and one pound of sugar would create a syrup perfect for coating the throat and curing coughs. Just make sure they don’t get on your face…
4. Contraception: Ancient Egyptian women once used crocodile dung as birth control. Molding the dung into the form of a pessary, they believed that the excrement was thick enough to prevent pregnancy.
5. Makeup: When paleness was once seen as the ideal skin tone, chalk became the primary means of whiting the face. Not only did women smear chalk powder on their face, but they also ate it as well, making them so sick that they’d turn pale as a result.
6. Feminine Products: The invention of tampons and most feminine products are relatively modern, so women of the past had to make do with whatever they had lying around. That included clumps of moss, torn right out of the forest floor!
7. Dental Health: During the Elizabethan era, sugar was only available to the upper echelon of society. Therefore, sugar-rotted teeth were considered a symbol of wealth, and peasants would even go as far as faking the disease just to look richer.
8. Birth Control: Before the days of pills and injections, women drank all kinds of concoctions to prevent pregnancy. The grossest of them all was a tea from Canada made entirely from the genitals of male beavers.
9. Fashion: Why buy another outfit when the one you’re wearing fits just fine? This was the logic of many families before the 19th century when most people had an average of four pairs of clothing to their name—one for each season.
10. Dentures: Back before false teeth were invented, those looking for a new set of pearly whites had to get them from the only people willing to give them up: the dead. In fact, many dentures during the time were constructed from the teeth of dead soldiers.
11. Flowers: These petaled beauties certainly aren’t gross, but some of the things they were once used for definitely are. In the times where people didn’t bathe much, flowers were always kept on hand to mask the stench of body odor.
Clemens v. Vogelsang / Flickr
12. Medicine: In the days before their deaths, 16th-century Arabic men ate nothing but honey and were then buried in coffins full of honey after passing. The corpse was dug up several weeks later and pieces of the body were eaten as a miracle cure.
13. Laundry Day: Before we had OxiClean and Tide, we had urine, which is sterile and contains ammonia. Not only did people once wash their clothes with urine, but they also used it as mouthwash, too.
Jays Thought Stream
14. Labor Aides: No epidurals here, just more animal dung. During labor, Medieval women were given eagle poop mixed with oil and vinegar in order to ease the pain of childbirth.
15. Surgery: Germs weren’t a thing until the mid-1800s, so none of the surgical equipment used by doctors before then was ever sterilized. Maybe getting a checkup back then wasn’t such a good idea after all…
16. Dental Hygiene: Toothpaste is another modern invention, and in the days before straight baking soda was introduced as a dental hygiene product, people would often use burnt herbs like rosemary and mint to brush their teeth. That’s better than the Romans, who reportedly brushed their teeth with mouse brains.
17. Dieting: Why watch your diet when you can eat anything you want and not gain a pound? That was the pitch by quack doctors of the early 20th century when they pushed tapeworms as weight-loss supplements.
18. Toilet Paper: Just kidding! There wasn’t any. That’s why when nature came calling, people would use things like leaves, rags, a wet cloth on a stick, or even their own hand to get the job done.
Huong Chi / Flickr
19. Feminine Hygiene: You’ve heard of Lysol as a kitchen cleaner, but Lysol as a feminine product? Before it found its way under every kitchen sink in America, Lysol was initially marketed as a way to “keep women fresh”.
20. Cleaning Solutions: Forget everything you know about mopping the floor because ancient Egyptians once used the powdered remains of mummies to clean their homes. They also used the powder as a cure-all, rubbing it on their skin and ingesting it in large doses.