If you sat and wondered about all the things you don’t know about your country’s history, you would probably end up with a headache and an unshakable paranoia. Who knows how much history we’ve always been blind to? You’d think that a positive aspect of modern day technology would be our tendency to write things down, but a surprising amount of information from as recently as the 1970s remains buried.

The Vietnam War was long, arduous, and controversial, but one of its most fascinating moments happened out of the public’s eye. Over forty years later, the people involved in this long-buried humanitarian mission are finally revealing what they experienced — and the stories are rife with tension, controversy, and dirty diapers…

On April 4th, 1975, a plane from Saigon took off into the balmy morning sky. At this point, all eyes were on Vietnam and its inevitable downfall. But as the plane edged above the clouds, the passengers thought only of home…

John Neubauer/NARA

But twelve minutes later, the plane was engulfed with smoke. It shook as it grazed the treetops. What made this crash unique wasn’t the fact that it happened at all, but the lives it took: 138 total…including 78 children.

Bettman/CORBIS

One day earlier, President Ford announced a plan to evacuate orphans out of Saigon on a series of 30 flights to the U.S. It was a humanitarian mission, but for those involved, the danger was impossible to ignore.

Gerald R. Ford Museum

It’s unknown what caused the initial Operation Babylift flight to crash, but everyone knew that the South Vietnamese had a matter of days before being overcome by U.S. forces. Everyone was tense, and everyone was in a state of anticipation…especially one group.

Bud Traynor

In April 1975, Vietnamese orphans waited outside of a plane with thirty strangers, unsure of where they were and where they were going. When the time came for the children to board the plane, flight attendant Karen Ryan described a heart-breaking sight.

ABC 7 News

“The onslaught of little [children] being being carried up the ramp and thrust into our arms brought tears to our eyes,” Karen wrote. “I have never seen so many ill and malnourished babies; some looked to be at death’s door.” 

Australian War Memorial/Barrie Winston/Farleigh Gillman

One thing was clear as they ascended into the sky: “FAA rules be damned,” Karen wrote. Keeping the kids safe was their only goal. They held as many babies as they could to keep them from rolling around the makeshift nursery. 

Jean-Claude Francolon/Gamma-Rapho

Once in the air, the flight attendants, nurses, and volunteers surveyed the cabin of children — and were shocked by what they saw. A lack of resources combined with various illnesses made their single goal a nerve-wracking one to accomplish. 

National Archives

“We constantly peeked into bassinets to make sure each baby was still breathing. I froze as I flashed my light on each little back, waiting for what seemed like hours to see a rib cage move,” Karen remembered. 

Joyce Wertz Harrington

“There were no baby carriers, so we…[used] seat belts tightened around the babies,” a volunteer said. “If there was a crash, I was to get off the plane first and [the flight attendant] would toss babies to me,” he said.

Nick Ut/Associated Press

For all the chaos that occurred in the sky, there were good moments, too. “They were just darling or they were very scared,” said flight attendant Jan Wollett. “And you’d hug them…and tell them it was going to be okay.” 

The Times and Democrat

Some children reveled in the clouds, but others were too distracted by illness to care. The volunteers had no clue that a majority of the children were lactose intolerant, so the use of baby formula resulted in a singularly messy flight.

Associated Press

Other children were already sick, as Karen described: Severe dehydration, intestinal illness, pneumonia, and chicken pox ran rampant. The intensely ill kids were held or watched over by a nurse or volunteer as they waited breathlessly for the plane’s descent.

National Archives

What happened in the sky was chaotic, and once they finally landed in the U.S., the pandemonium continued. Planes were met by medical teams who separated the children by illness, but most were brought to Harmon Hall…which wasn’t much of an improvement.

National Archives

Michael Howe, a volunteer coordinator, remembered the sheer confusion inside Harmon Hall. “We were there doing what we possibly could do in an environment where we really weren’t quite sure what to do,” said Howe. They all had one instinct…

Nick Ut/AP/Sacramento Bee

To help as many terrified children as possible. Harmon Hall was filled with old mattresses, disposable diapers, aspirin tablets, and gallons of baby powder — but as the volunteers fed, held, and talked to each child, concern seeped into the frenzied atmosphere. 

Golden Gate NRA/Park Archives and Records Center

“I felt it before we closed out our work,” said Howe. What he “felt” was that some of the children weren’t as alone in the world as once thought. “A number of children…said they are not orphans,” volunteer Jane Barton said frankly. 

DIA History Office

The rumor that the government was unsure of these kids’ orphan status is not so much a “rumor” as it is an unconfirmed fact, and it makes Operation Babylift a complicated moment in U.S. history. But for those involved, what happened isn’t complicated at all.

Joyce Wertz Harrington

“We thought we were taking [the kids] from a possible bad life to maybe a good life,” Jan Wollett recalled. Is there a difference between a “possible bad life” and “maybe a good life?” There’s only one group of people who can decide.

Nigel Brooks

Whether they were stolen or saved, the U.S. ended up transporting around 2,500 children out of Vietnam. Now adults, these children have since commented on how the historic flights changed their lives — for the better and for the worse.

Mel Evans/AP

“[My] first thought was, ‘My, it was cold,’” said Thanh Jeff Ghar, who was twelve when he first touched down on American soil. He believes that he never could’ve become an engineer had he not been put onto that plane. 

Joyce Wertz Harrington

“I really want them to know that they did a wonderful thing,” he said of Operation Babylift. In an ironic — or maybe destined — turn of events, some of his fellow Babylift survivors have since boarded new planes…

Richard Silver/Ric Feld/AP

Many children who arrived in the U.S. via Operation Babylift have returned to Vietnam to untangle old family ties. But unlike their last trip from Vietnam, this one was on their own terms…and the decision to fly was all their own. 

Their journeys home wouldn’t have been possible in the first place were it not for the work of soldiers like John Robertson. A Green Beret, his superiors assigned him a unique role during the Vietnam War.

Unlcaimed

As part of a CIA-controlled force called the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam–Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG), now-Sergeant Robertson wasn’t permitted dog tags or ID. That was because he and his platoon conducted covert unconventional warfare…

Part of this “unconventional warfare” involved operations in Laos. The nation bordered Vietnam—and American forces were not authorized to be there. In 1968, it was here that enemies shot down Sergeant Robertson and his unit’s helicopter.

The helicopter crashed in a Laotian mountain range, and since American forces weren’t permitted to be there, other units couldn’t conduct a proper search-and-rescue mission. Sergeant Robertson was officially declared MIA—Missing in Action.

Years later, on May 28, 1976, with no sign of Sergeant Robertson, the United States government officially declared him dead; he left behind a wife and two children. Yet, questions about his disappearance lingered…

Unclaimed

Decades later, in the early 2010s, another Vietnam veteran by the name of Tom Faunce strolled passed the Vietnam War Memorial. He felt thankful that his name wasn’t etched on that wall.

Unclaimed

Although Faunce had survived the war, he’d still suffered. He’d lost friends. He’d seen terrible things. Yet, in 2008, he decided to travel back to Southeast Asia. Once there, he stumbled upon something incredible—and it all had to do with Sergeant Robertson.

Myth Merchant Films / YouTube

In his older age, Faunce began focusing on humanitarian efforts, like digging wells in poor villages, and it was that work that brought him and a small company back to the Vietnam region. While there, he heard a curious rumor…

Myth Merchant Films / YouTube

The rumor suggested that North Vietnam didn’t release all American prisoners of war, not even after the fighting ended in 1973. According to this story, Sergeant Robertson also survived the plane crash—and he now lived in the jungles of Vietnam. Could it be true?

Unclaimed

Sticking to the no-man-left-behind mantra, Faunce then embarked on a quest to find out if his comrade-in-arms was alive. To begin, he enlisted Emmy Award-winning filmmaker Michael Jorgensen (pictured at right). Though Jorgensen was skeptical, he agreed to help.

Unclaimed via Daily Mail

If the veteran would “go all the way in helping someone he didn’t even know,” Jorgensen told the Daily Mail, then whether Sergeant Robertson was alive or not didn’t matter. Faunce’s journey would be a good story in itself.

Unclaimed

And so the unlikely duo traveled to Vietnam with cameras in tow. After tracking rumors and speaking with locals, Faunce and Jorgensen were led to a house in the woods. There, they met a man named Dang Tan Ngoc who revealed something shocking…

Ngoc claimed he was the missing soldier, Sergeant John Robertson! He explained he’d been captured by the Vietnamese after the crash, and his captors tortured him for four years, after which he finally escaped.

Unclaimed

According to Ngoc, he then ended up in care of a Vietnamese woman who nursed him back to health and eventually married him. Together, they had two children. To protect his identity, Robertson assumed the identity of “Dang Tan Ngoc.”

The man’s story and character, however, had its fair share of holes: he didn’t speak English, claiming to have forgotten the language after decades without speaking it. Stranger, he’d made no effort to contact his American wife or kids (whose names he couldn’t remember).

Unclaimed

But as Jorgensen told The Toronto Star, Faunce was “very skeptical, grilled this guy up and down trying to get him to break, to say, ‘Oh, no, I’m just making it up.’ And he was adamant he was that guy.”

Fishy story and all, Jorgensen filmed what he’d eventually call Unclaimed, a documentary about the journey to reunite Ngoc with his American sister, Jean Robertson-Holley. Surely, his sister would know if this man was really who he claimed to be.

With all of the pieces in place, the meeting between the alleged Sergeant Robertson and Robertson-Holley was set to occur. When the two finally saw each other, the resulting interaction was incredible…

Unclaimed

“When I held his head in my hands and looked in his eyes,” Robertson-Holley said in Unclaimed, “there was no question that was my brother.” With unconditional love and unwavering faith in his identity, she welcomed her brother back into her life.

Unchained

But while the tearful reunion might have been a statement on never giving up hope or a beautiful image of a family reunited, too many questions—like the rest of those generated by the murky war—were left unanswered. That is, until recently…

In 2009, the Defense Prisoner of War Missing Personnel Office stated in a recently exposed memo that Dang Tan Ngoc was a known imposter—a con artist who’d been impersonating Sergeant Robertson since 1982.

Unclaimed via HuffingtonPost

Before filming ever took place, U.S. officials had interviewed this man, and, under pressure, he revealed he was not Sergeant Robertson. In 2008, he was caught impersonating the soldier another time and fingerprinted.

Unclaimed via HuffingtonPost

Those aware of Ngoc’s cons weren’t surprised that people like Faunce believed him. Don Bendell, an award-winning author (and himself a Vietnam War veteran), claimed “[he] is a guy from France, an imposter, who has been used to scam money from well-meaning veterans and others who would love to see any POW rescued.”

Unclaimed via Daily Mail

Additionally, many noted how impossible Dang Tan Ngoc’s story truly was. As Retired Special Forces Captain Robert Noe wrote, “No one forgets to speak their native language after that long.” Yet, one mystery still remained…

Robertson-Holley was so certain the man was her brother that she refused a DNA test. But why? Jorgensen understood. “It’s kind of like, ‘That was an ugly war. It was a long time ago. We just want it to go away,'” he said. Was she simply desperate to believe she never lost her brother in the war?

Eventually, Robertson’s niece, Cyndi Hanna, had a DNA test conducted. And? “We have received the results,” she wrote at the time, “and sadly there was NOT a match. This is very disappointing.”

Unclaimed via DailyMail

“As my mother has said, we only want to do right by my Uncle John,” Hanna said. “And if that means… the man claiming to be my uncle is actually another lost American and doesn’t know who he is, we intend to seek the truth on our own terms.”

Unclaimed

Jorgensen’s filmmaker instincts about Faunce’s determination proved correct. While Sergeant John Robertson’s true fate might remain a mystery, Faunce’s journey to recover a man he’d never met made for an incredible story.

Unclaimed